Elderly health in a warmer Stockholm

Develop solutions for the elderly to be able to live and feel good in a neighborhood / area in a future with a generally warmer climate and especially with an increased risk of heat waves. We are looking for answers to two different questions, partly how to get the heat question into the physical planning and partly how to make it easier for the individual when a heat wave occurs.
We will identify a neighborhood with a high proportion of the elderly population, which could be hit hard by a heat wave, with the help of a heat mapping made by the City of Stockholm.

Older people's health in a warmer Stockholm

Develop solutions for the elderly to be able to live and feel good in a neighborhood / area in a future with generally warmer climates and especially with increased risk of heat waves. We seek answers to two different questions, partly how to get into the heat issue in the physical planning and partly how to facilitate the individual when a heat wave occurs.
We will identify a block with a high proportion of elderly population, which could be hit hard by a heat wave, with the help of a heat map made by Stockholm city.

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The unit for community planning, Stockholm County Administrative Board together with the Elderly Administration, Stockholm City and the Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council

Background
Climate calculations indicate that it will be warmer in Stockholm County. Towards the end of the century, the scenarios show that the annual average temperature can be as much as 3-5 ° C higher and heat waves will occur more and more and they become more long-lasting. With the densification of Stockholm, a large number of temperature-reducing green surfaces risk disappearing, which leads to a stronger urban heat effect. The densification also leads to more noise, air pollution, pollen and ozone in people's vicinity. In other words, the densification in combination with increased temperature is a risk to human health.
Heat has a strong influence on our health and studies show that the heat has a direct connection to the number of deaths. Therefore, it is an important factor to relate to, both in health and social care but also in urban planning. Heat and heat waves are a health threat for certain risk groups, mainly people over the age of 65. One reason for this is that the temperature regulation of older people is worse than that of younger people, and that sick and bedridden persons may find it harder to perceive the body's signals, and neither have the same opportunity to escape the city at high temperatures. The population of Stockholm County is expected to increase by 430,000 until 2025, and the population structure of the population is expected to change slightly during the period. More children and young people up to the age of twenty are expected to be born. The thirty-six generation achieves the seventies, which means that the number of elderly people is expected to increase significantly, eg. So it is predicted that by 2025 the number of 80 year olds will have almost doubled, from about 9,000 to about 18,000 people.

Challenge
Develop solutions for the elderly to be able to live and feel good in a neighborhood / area in a future with generally warmer climates and especially with increased risk of heat waves. We seek answers to two different questions, partly how to get into the heat issue in the physical planning and partly how to facilitate the individual when a heat wave occurs.
We will identify a block with a high proportion of elderly population, which could be hit hard by a heat wave, with the help of a heat map made by Stockholm city.

1. In what way can different actors in society, such as caregivers, municipalities, county councils, property owners and the individual himself, increase their readiness for future heating periods? See examples below
a) How can Stockholm city's elderly care be developed to support the elderly to better cope with a heat wave?
b) How can one modify the already built environment, both inside and outside, to get more coolness?

2. How does, for example, Paris or other major cities affected by heatwave managed it?

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Äldres hälsa i ett varmare Stockholm

Ta fram lösningar för att äldre ska kunna bo och må bra i ett kvarter/ område i en framtid med generellt varmare klimat och särkskilt med ökad risk för värmeböljor. Vi söker svar på två olika frågor, dels hur man får in värmefrågan i den fysiska planeringen och dels hur man underlättar för individen när en värmebölja inträffar.
Vi kommer att identifiera ett kvarter med hög andel äldre befolkning, som skulle kunna drabbas hårt av en värmebölja, med hjälp av en värmekartering gjord av Stockholms stad.

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Enheten för samhällsplanering, Länsstyrelsen Stockholm tillsammans med Äldreförvaltningen, Stockholm Stad och Centrum för Arbets- och Miljömedicin, Stockholms läns landsting

Bakgrund
Klimatberäkningar pekar på att det kommer att bli varmare i Stockholms län. Mot slutet av seklet visar scenarierna på att årsmedeltemperaturen kan bli så mycket som 3-5°C högre och värmeböljor kommer att inträffa allt oftare och de blir mer långvariga. I och med förtätningen av Stockholm riskerar ett stort antal temperatursänkande grönytor att försvinna, vilket leder till en starkare urban värmeö-effekt. Förtätningen leder också till mer buller, luftföroreningar, pollen och ozon i människors närhet. Med andra ord är förtätningen i kombination med ökad temperatur, en risk för människors hälsa.
Värme har en stark påverkan på vår hälsa och studier visar att värmen har en direkt koppling till antalet dödsfall. Därför är den en viktig faktor att förhålla sig till, såväl inom vård och omsorg men också inom bebyggelseplanering. Värme och värmeböljor är ett hälsohot för vissa riskgrupper, främst personer över 65 år. En anledning till detta är att temperaturregleringen hos äldre personer är sämre än hos yngre samt att sjuka och sängliggande personer kan ha svårare att uppfatta kroppens signaler och inte heller har samma möjlighet att fly staden vid höga temperaturer. Befolkningen i Stockholms län beräknas öka med 430 000 personer fram till 2025 och åldersstrukturen hos befolkningen förväntas enligt prognosen förändras något under perioden. Fler barn och unga i åldrarna upp till tjugo år antas tillkomma. Fyrtiotalistgenerationen uppnår sjuttioårsåldern och vilket gör att antalet äldre förväntas öka betydligt, t.ex. så prognostiseras att 2025 är antalet 80 åringar i stort sett fördubblat, från ca 9000 till ca 18000 personer.

Utmaning
Ta fram lösningar för att äldre ska kunna bo och må bra i ett kvarter/ område i en framtid med generellt varmare klimat och särkskilt med ökad risk för värmeböljor. Vi söker svar på två olika frågor, dels hur man får in värmefrågan i den fysiska planeringen och dels hur man underlättar för individen när en värmebölja inträffar.
Vi kommer att identifiera ett kvarter med hög andel äldre befolkning, som skulle kunna drabbas hårt av en värmebölja, med hjälp av en värmekartering gjord av Stockholms stad.

1. På vilket sätt kan olika aktörer i samhället, tex vårdgivare, kommun, landsting, fastighetsägare och individen själv öka sin beredskap för kommande värmeperioder? Se exempel nedan
a) Hur kan Stockholms stads äldreomsorg utvecklas för att stödja de äldre att bättre klara en värmebölja?
b) Hur kan man modifiera den redan bebyggda miljön, både ute och inne, för att få mer svalka?

2. Hur har t.ex. Paris eller andra storstäder som drabbats av värmebölja hanterat den?

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Collection of ideas

Backyard Network

Documented research has proven that the reintroduction of vegetation into cities reduces the urban heat island effect. Cities are cooler and quieter through shading, evaporative transpiration, and the absorption of sound by green walls. Green space can help to reduce heat and combat air pollution in the urban setting.

The concept is an eco-urban network that consists of many self-managed backyards where people create a jungle-like garden of their backyards (both in elderly homes and ordinary housings) and maintain them during the summer months. There will be a lot of plants, fruits and flowers. The walls will be covered with green panels and waterfalls. There will be movable chairs, benches and tables. (A) "green igloo" placed in the backyard will provide a cooler place for sitting. The backyards will be opened daytime for anyone in the city to visit.

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Cool umbrella

Cool umbrella that can be placed on a Chair, wheelchair, bed o.s.v. < br/> Cooling device can be powered by internal rechargeable battery, AC power, solar cells. Alternatively, you can also plug in a cooling air hose, on a number of umbrellas on a patio café for example, powered by a central cooling-air plant. < br/> The parasol has drooping transparent screen. See fig. < br/> It is also possible to make larger variants such as, a dining table, patio o.s.v. < br/> < br/>

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Solar powered cooling/ventilation

Subsidize solar powered easy to install fan or cooling for the elderly.

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Helping green hands

It is an association of people from different backgrounds with an aim to socialize with the elderly and helping them to take care of green spaces, indoor and outdoor (this could go together with the concept about green networks). This could be organized so some are volunteers and some are paid. The volunteers will not handle any medical tasks, instead they would ask a company to the elderly.

In a case of a heatwave, the association will provide various tips and assist the elderly, such as checking on them and urge them to drink water and how to deal with the heatwave.

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Automatic Warning System

SMHI sends the warnings regarding weather through SOS which sends it to the MSB or to Akin4boy in the County Administrative Board. This is done manually. < br/> < br/> At the time the system is not fully working, and the information about the heat is not going through to the health care due to not fully electronic. By automate the process and make it work in real-time with a two-way feedback confirmation it would be more efficient. < br/> < br/> The communication will be conducted through various devices: TV, Radio, SMS, local emergency speakers.

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Sustainable construction

Eco-friendly construction can help to create a better outdoor environment and it can also help to build a healthier indoor environment. Conventional building materials and methods have been linked to a wide range of health problems. Chemical pollutants from paints, solvents, plastics and composite timbers, along with biological pollutants such as dust mites and moulds are known to cause symptoms such as asthma, headaches, depression, eczema etc. Green buildings eliminate these problems through good ventilation design, breathable walls, and the use of natural, non-toxic products and materials.
In one example; Insulation is one of the most important thing that you need to consider while building a green home. Heating and cooling consume 50% of your home’s energy consumption. Air leaks such as around windows, door and duct work is responsible for building’s heat loss. Proper insulation will not only reduce your energy consumption but will bring down your electricity bills substantially.
In other example of sustainable products are incorporate in building, combined with the concepts of passive solar construction. One of the most important design elements in sustainable buildings are passive solar construction.
Passive solar homes feature smart design considerations that can dramatically decrease the need for active energy heating and cooling systems. Passive solar homes feature large south-facing windows that let in a wealth of sunlight in wintertime and help warm up a space. With the proper calculations and other considerations, direct sunlight is prevented from entering in summertime, keeping a room cool and comfortable. Effectively, passive solar homes stay cooler in the summer, and warmer in the winter with lesser need for air conditioning and heating.

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